Assessing the improvement capabilities of a generative model 3C-station detector algorithm for the IMS

Engineering Sciences and Technology Journal (ESTJ), Volume 2, Aug 2017
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The IMS seismic network produces an abundance of time-series data, posing great challenges for on-line processing and unbiased near real-time analysis. To this end, methods borrowed from the field of machine learning and data mining provide elegant solutions. By adhering to the multivariate statistical framework of Dynamic Bayesian Networks we make use of historical data obtained from the LEB bulletin to train a classifier to capture the intrinsic characteristics of signal and noise patterns appearing in seismic data streams. On a per station basis this yields generative statistical models that essentially summarize and generalize the information implicitly contained in the LEB allowing for classifying future and previously unseen seismic data. About 100 waveform snippets of short duration (4-12 secs) are extracted from 1 week of waveform data for training both the signal and noise classes. On a separate test-set we measure (binary) classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, when testing against unseen data in time we can confirm seasonal dependency of noise characteristics, calling for an adaptive adjustment of the noise class over time which is implemented in a sequential learning fashion. A major obstacle is however the limited comparability between our purely automatic station-level detector and the combined automatic network associator with subsequent manual inspection approach at the IDC. The improvements over SEL3 and LEB bulletins is therefore difficult to quantify without further effort. To allow for a controlled evaluation we generate a semi-synthetic data set from cutting and pasting real waveform data in between station-specific noise samples.

Author(s): Carsten Riggelsen

THERMAL- INDUCED CRACKING IN A CONCRETE DAM STRUCTURE

Engineering Sciences and Technology Journal (ESTJ), Volume 2, Aug 2017
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Shortly after it was completed in 2 006, a castin- place dam exhibited significant cracking in its concrete slabs. An investigation was undertaken which included laboratory studies, field investigations, petrographic examination of concrete cores, and finite element analysis of the early-age thermal and mechanical behavior of the structure. The root cause of cracking was attributed to thermal effects in the slabs early in the age of each slab. Peak tensile stresses from the analysis were determined to be in excess of the modulus of rupture occur through the thickness of the slab approximately 2 0 days from the date of concrete placement. Cores extracted from the structure showed that the cracks extended through the thicknesses of the slabs. Petrographic examination of the cores did not yield evidence of other possible causes of the observed cracking, namely improper curing, improper mixture proportions, or active deterioration mechanisms such as alkali silica reaction. To prevent similar cracking from occurring in similar construction in the future, it is recommended that a thermal management plan be implemented to mitigate the temperature effects that caused the cracking.

Author(s): IC Hodgson, S Pessiki

REFURBISHING JORDANGATE MULTI-STOREY CAR PARK TO OVERCOME STRUCTURAL DEFECTS

Engineering Sciences and Technology Journal (ESTJ), Volume 2, Jul 2017
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Abstract
A structural appraisal of Jordangate MSCP in Macclesfield, built in the 1 980s, identified chloride penetration within the concrete and recommended treatment using cathodic protection to control the corrosion of the structural steel, together with concrete repairs and waterproofing of the car decks and other associated works. The original worst-case scenario estimates were put forward for budgetary purposes, with more accurate costs dependant on the outcome of further testing and appraisals. Following budget approval, a review of the original structural appraisal report advised that as the effects of chloride penetration had not yet materialized, the use of cathodic protection was not considered to be essential at this stage. The recommendation was that concrete repairs be undertaken and waterproofing be applied to the concrete decks to eliminate water penetration, thereby reducing the risk of chloride attack, followed up by a regular monitoring regime to ensure that conditions had not deteriorated. A number of products from BASF Construction Chemicals were used by Concrete Repairs Limited in carrying out the refurbishment. Numerous deck repairs were needed prior to deck covering and a special CONIDECK? deck membrane strip system tackled the cracking along the joints of the block and beam construction.

Author(s): Bentley

Religious multicultural health care in a secularised pluralistic society

Social Sciences and Humanities Journal (SSHJ), Volume 2, Sep 2017
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In contemporary pluralistic Western societies, the health care system over recent decades has more and more incorporated the idea of ?multicultural health care?. Instead of focusing on the given health care, our research has focused on the demand. In addition, it has examined how health care takers in Sweden think about and experience ?multi cultural health care,? with religious aspects in mind. The results show a very complex situation. Firstly, there is the question of who is responsible for the religious part of the ?multi cultural health care?. Is it the health care institutions, the religious organizations, the health care takers or the health care takers family? Secondly, broad spectrums of religious needs that can be very individual or very close to specific religions come into play. Finally, there is the question of how professionals within health care do not want to interfere with the health care takers private sphere, which in a secularized society as Sweden often includes religion.

Author(s): Magdalena Nordin, Tobias Scholin

Public Views on the Death Penalty in Twentieth-Century England and Wales

Social Sciences and Humanities Journal (SSHJ), Volume 2, Sep 2017
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This article will convey information about a small-scale piece of research, which is in its early stages, on public attitudes towards the death penalty in England and Wales c. 1928 ? 1965. The time period covers that of the reinvigoration of the abolition movement in the twentieth-century until the suspension of capital punishment, preceding its abolition in 1969. The project will analyse qualitative data on public views on the death penalty in the form of letters sent to successive Home Secretaries concerning capital prisoners, which can be found in Home Office files held in the National Archives. The letters will not be regarded as representative of public opinion during the era, but as sources that make the relationship between contemporary views on the death penalty, wider cultures of punishment and the socio-economic context researchable. The article will outline the theoretical background on the cultural meanings of capital punishment and the plans to research this from letters concerning the execution or reprieve of capital prisoners in England and Wales.

Author(s): Lizzie SEAL

PE FUTURES AND THE (IM)POSSIBILITIES FOR INCLUSIVE PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Social Sciences and Humanities Journal (SSHJ), Volume 2, Sep 2017
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This paper focuses on inclusion in Physical Education. Internationally, for the past ten years inclusive education, and more specifically, inclusive Physical Education has become embedded within discourse and practice (Slee, 2006). Whilst inclusion generally is recognised as a ?good thing it is also acknowledged that Physical Education practitioners have found it more challenging to work towards inclusion in their practice (Stevenson, 2009). More broadly, within Physical Education a number of scholars have recently challenged us to think ahead and imagine the possibilities of Physical Education in the future (Kirk, 2009; Tinning 2010). Each of these Physical Education futures has different implications for the kinds of experiences our students may have in Physical Education (or indeed any adapted version of Physical Education). In this paper, we extend this future gazing and envision three versions of Physical Education futures that are told through the narratives of young disabled people. In particular, these narrative tates illuminate the (im)possibilities for inclusive Physical Education experiences. They shed light on the content of the curriculum, the nature of the pedagogy adapted and the material experiences of disabled students. In offering these narrative tales we conclude by considering how current conceptions of Physical Education will need to change for the possibilities of inclusive Physical Education to become a reality.

Author(s): Hayley Fitzgerald

Decision making method with paraconsistent annotated logic tools and its application in selection of investment by nancial institutions

Business Sciences and Management Journal (BSMJ), Volume 2, Sep 2017
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New types of logics are capable of handling with contradiction and uncertainty without becoming trivial. One of them is the annotated paraconsistent evidential logic E?. A proposition of E? is of the type p(a, b), in which a and b belong to interval [0,1] and represent respectively the degrees of favorable and contrary evidence expressed by p. The set ? of all pairs (a, b) constitutes a lattice of output values. In this work we present an application of the Paraconsistent Decision Method (PDM) in selection of investments, managed by the para-analyzing algorithm based on this logic.

Author(s): Fabio Romeu de Carvalho

New product development in graduate management educational programs

Business Sciences and Management Journal (BSMJ), Volume 2, Sep 2017
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It has been approximately twenty years since the inception of the Internet as we know it today. In addition to a vast array of opportunities for increased communication, the Internet and the World Wide Web have ushered in a new form of graduate management education that has significantly increased in popularity and educational value. This new platform for graduate management education provides unique opportunities for the design and development of new higher education programs that better relate to students changing needs. Developing these new educational programs requires enhanced skills, capabilities, infrastructures, and processes. In some form distance education has been available for approximately 100 years. Due to advances in communication technology, distance education programs of the past have blossomed into the variety of graduate management products (courses and seminars) that are now accessible through the Internet. In this paper, we first discuss the literature surrounding distance education with a focus on two major concepts - dialogue and structure - that can be used to describe and measure the studentfaculty educational interface and the quality of distance education programs. Second, we address the changing environmental conditions that have exacerbated contemporary students needs for access with regard to how and where their education is delivered and flexibility relative to when and how students can participate in educational programs. Both access and flexibility can impact the delivery and content of educational programs in important ways. Next, we examine the relationship between dialogue and structure relative to three existing models of distance education that can be employed to deliver graduate management programs. Fourth, we describe an online graduate management education product entitled the student-centric model and compare its features to the three previously described distance education models. Finally, we discuss several issues surrounding the administration of web-based education programs with a continued emphasis on the concepts of dialogue and structure as they relate to the role administrators play in offering quality graduate management educational programs. Throughout our paper, we suggest propositions derived from our discussion that can be developed into testable hypotheses. We conclude by identifying several specific issues warranting further investigation.

Author(s): Murray R. Millson, David Wilemon

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE STATE OF EMPLOYMENT RELATIONS IN MAURITIUS: THE CASE OF THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS

Business Sciences and Management Journal (BSMJ), Volume 2, Sep 2017
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This paper assesses the state of employment relations in Mauritius by analyzing data from the private and public sector organizations of Mauritius. The paper initially summarises, the theoretical framework governing employment relations and then presents empirical results of the study. The findings are based on two questionnaire surveys, one for management and the other for employees together with unstructured interviews to explore the field. The data used in the paper forms part of a wider study and will contribute to the field of employment relations and open avenues for further research.

Author(s): PRIYA BAGUANT

A pharmacological strategy towards a therapeutic hope: Miglustat

Medicine Sciences and Healthcare Journal (MSHJ), Volume 2, Sep 2017
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Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a fatal, autosomal and recessive genetic disease that is mainly due to inactivating mutations in the chloride channel CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Sodium hyperabsorption by the airways, mediated by the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), profound lung inflammation and dysregulation of the calcium homeostasis are presumably causally related to loss of CFTR-dependent chloride function in CF patients. One strategy for development of CF therapeutics is the identification of pharmacological agents that correct processing defect of F508del-CFTR and/or stimulate the channel activity of mutated proteins. The protein-repair therapy is based on several observations showing that in the presence of a pharmacological corrector, tailored to the specific F508del genotype, the misfolded protein escapes the ER and targeted to the plasma membrane. We have identified numerous F508del correctors with a CF drug discovery program using a robotic cell-based assay combined to molecular, biochemical and electrophysiological approaches. Among them, we identified miglustat, an orally bioavailable N-alkylated imino sugar (N-butyldeoxynojirimycin, Zavesca?). We investigated effects of high concentration (100 ?M) of miglustat on several CF characteristics and demonstrated after short-term (2-4 h) treatment of CF cells, a partial rescue of the defective F508del-CFTR trafficking and function [1], an improvement of the altered Ca2+ homeostasis [2], a down-regulation of ENaC-dependent Na+ hyperabsorption [3] and an anti-inflammatory effect of miglustat [4]. We suggested that the mechanism by which miglustat corrects the defective F508del-CFTR trafficking is correlated to a disturbance of the ER quality control system in CF cells. In support of that, miglustat is an ?1,2-glucosidase inhibitor preventing the interaction between F508del-CFTR and calnexin in the ER. More recently, we explored the concentration- and time-dependence of miglustat-induced correction of ionic transports in the human respiratory CF epithelial cells. The most salient result is the demonstration that a daily treatment for 2 months with low concentration of miglustat (3?M) resulted in progressive, stable, reversible and sustained correction of the F508del-CFTR deficient trafficking [5]. Then by investigating different biological and cellular aspects of cystic fibrosis such as Na+ hyperabsorption and dysregulation of the Ca2+ homeostasis, we were able to show paralleled normalization of these parameters correlated with the restoration of the F508del-CFTR function. In conclusion, we provided the first evidence that a respiratory CF cell can acquire a non-CF like phenotype when chronically treated with low-concentration of a pharmacological drug resulting in progressive, stable, reversible and sustained correction of F508del-CFTR trafficking, down-regulation of sodium hyperabsorption and regulation of the calcium homeostasis. This body of information makes the use of miglustat attractive as a potential pharmacologic therapy for those CF patients who have at least one F508del-CFTR allele. Miglustat, a medicament already prescribed in another orphan disease, is now evaluated in CF patients within a pilot phase 2a clinical trial.

Author(s): Caroline Norez

Biophysical Characterizaton of TMEM16A, a Membrane Protein with Calcium-Dependent Chloride Channel Activity

Medicine Sciences and Healthcare Journal (MSHJ), Volume 2, Sep 2017
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Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) play important roles in various cellular mechanisms, including fluid secretion in epithelia, sensory transduction, and regulation of neuronal and smooth muscle excitability. Molecular identity of this type of channels was controversial. Our group has recently identified TMEM16A as a possible CaCC. The aim of our present study is to characterize the properties of the Cl- currents associated with TMEM16A expression and to compare them with those of classical CaCCs described in several previous studies. For this purpose, we have used the patch clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration on FRT cells stable-transfected with the TMEM16A(abc) isoform. To analyse the ion channel selectivity, we substituted Cl- in the extracellular solution with other anions (I-, Br-, SCN-, and gluconate) and we measured the resulting shift in the reversal potential of membrane currents. Our data indicate that TMEM16A-dependent channels have ion selectivity properties similar to those of native CaCCs (Hartzell, Putzier and Arreola, Annu. Rev. Physiol. 2005. 67:719-58). We also studied the Ca2+-dependence of TMEM16A channels by changing the cytosolic free Ca2+-concentration in the 0.017 - 1.35 ?M range. By plotting the maximal current elicited at + 100 mV versus the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, and fitting the data with a Hill function, we found a Kd = 91.8 nM and a Hill coefficient nH = 2.32. These values are close to those published previously for CaCCs (Kd = 61 nM, nH = 2.7; Arreola, Melvin and Begenisish, J. Gen. Physiol. 1996. 108:35-47). In conclusion, our results confirm that TMEM16A is a membrane protein involved in Ca2+-dependent Cl- transport. This remark evidences that TMEM16A may represent an important pharmacological target to treat cystic fibrosis in which activation of an alternative Cl- channel may compensate for the defective CFTR activity

Author(s): Loretta Ferrera, Antonella Caputo, Luis J. V. Galietta

CLONING OF DEAFNESS CAUSING GENES IN BOTH ISOLATED POPULATIONS AND ENU MUTANT MICE

Medicine Sciences and Healthcare Journal (MSHJ), Volume 2, Sep 2017
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Geographically isolated populations have been successfully used to localize genes for recessive inherited diseases, including non-syndromic sensorineural recessive hearing loss (NSRHL). To date, 67 loci for NSRHL have been localized on human chromosomes (DFNB loci), and 22 of the corresponding genes have been identified; eight of those loci were first mapped in Palestinian families. We mapped recessive, severe to profound, prelingual NSHL in a four-generation consanguineous Palestinian Family K. The maximum LOD score was 4.19 at the 6.1MB interval on chromosome 22q13 bounded by recombinants in D22S1045 and D22S282. The DFNB28 region is distal to MYH9 and to the region deleted in Velo-cardio-facial Syndrome. Other Palestinian families were found to be linked to the same region, suing homozygosity mapping across all linked families, the causative gene was finally cloned. Deaf mouse mutants in conjunction with linkage analysis of families with deafness have been instrumental in the identification of human genes. Nevertheless, a great number of human deafness loci do not have a corresponding ?mouse model?; and on the other hand there are a large number of deaf mouse mutants with no human homologue. Part of the deficit we hope to complete using mouse models generated form the ENU mutagenesis program. In our lab, we have cloned a number of those ENU mutants including Doarad, Beethoven, headturner, and recently Headchuk which is the second ENU mutant mouse in our lab that has a mutation in Jagged1. More work is now being done on other ENU mutants in the lab, to determine their causative genes and to characterize their ear phenotypes.

Author(s): Shahin H., Walsh T., King M-C., Kanaan M.

The Dynamic Structure of Phonographic Space

Art Studies and Architectural Journal (ASAJ), Volume 2, Sep 2017
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This paper examines how spatial staging of sounds in modern popular music recordings are conceptualised and experienced. Recently popular music studies have turned to the study of sounds in space. This can be understood as a way to recognize the impact of recording and postproduction techniques, which allows a fuller appreciation of the distinct spatial logic of recorded sounds. Mapping out phonographic space involves several problems primarily related to the fact that auditory spatial cues found on recordings are dissimilar to the spatial cues we experience in the physical world. The spatial characteristics on recordings are instead, I will argue, a composite of many different environmental characteristics and dynamic force structures. Studio technology and recording practice are seldom part of the way music is conceptualized. In this paper I will present results from a study I have conducted exposing metaphorical expressions in interviews with sound recording engineers. This study revealed that sound engineers often think in force dynamics when describing the inner workings of an audio mix. Using Lakoff and Johnsons work on cognitive linguistics as a guide, I will argue that metaphors offer an alternative medium for understanding the structure and manifestation of phonographic space.

Author(s): Mads Walther-Hansen

Intercultural Theatre for the 21st Century: Demolishing Epistemic Walls and Building New Glocalities

Art Studies and Architectural Journal (ASAJ), Volume 2, Sep 2017
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This paper examines the layered and critical ways in which intercultural theatre, which has been constructed at the ?crossroads of culture? (to use Patrice Pavis words), addresses colonial epistemic violence by decentralizing both authorship and geo-political localities. Providing examples from a variety of plays and theatrical productions from Europe, Latin America and Asia, this paper illustrates the representational modalities that intercultural theatre adopts to defy the dangers of political incorrectness and cultural appropriation, and to articulate constructive interchanges at the border of nations, cultures, and races. The paper explores the boldness of intercultural theatre in not shying away from the many confrontations inherent in its very artistic idiom; how it has reached out and embraced the challenges of immigration and post-nationalist society; and how it has established a public workshop where spectators can experience, investigate, and process issues of assimilation, diversity, and identity. These theatrical experiments often deconstruct the unproblematic assumption of globalizations ineluctability by shaping new glocalities, where meaningful political avenues and long-lasting negotiations between culturally diverse groups are built.

Author(s): Stefano Muneroni

Digital Music and the Music Business: The Impact of the Internet on Compositional Creativity and New Business Models

Art Studies and Architectural Journal (ASAJ), Volume 2, Sep 2017
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?Digital Music and the Music Business: The Impact of the Internet on Compositional Creativity and New Business Models,? addresses the impact of digitized music files on the Music Industry. File-Sharing, copyright, and new business models are presented as they relate to the ever-changing nature of todays Music Industry. Creativity in composition, production, and distribution are emphasized in the global marketplace. The rate of Internet usage has exponentially grown over the past 15 years and has significantly impacted the creativity methods composers utilize to construct music for distribution. Copyright law and new technologies have accelerated changes that impact the music industry. The music business is a global, multi-billion dollar industry. This paper presents research on the impact of Internet file-sharing on the industry and its influence on artists and the user/listener while giving attention to the creative process of electronic digital music composition.

Author(s): Mark Konewko

Hot-Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition Method to Fabricate Stable Diamond Film Electrodes for Wastewater Treatment

Natural Sciences & Environment Journal (NSEJ), Volume 2, Sep 2017
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Abstract
Growing diamond film on a titanium substrate is a challenge. The major problem is the stability of the diamond film form. Since titanium metal is an ideal material for electrode fabrication, especially for DSA type electrodes, the research on the improvement of working life of boron-doped diamond film on titanium (Ti/BDD) remains a hot topic. By using proper pretreatment and a suitable combination of precursor gases, my research laboratory has been able to fabricate Ti/BDD electrodes using hot-filament chemical vapor deposition method with accelerated working life over 260 hours (measured under conditions of 10,000A/m2 in 3M H2SO4). The accelerated service life was further improved to 320 hours by deposition a layer of silicon between Ti and BDD layers. A recent innovation by having staged substrate temperatures lead to the producing of the Ti/BDD electrode with an accelerated service life over 800 hours. This great improvement was found to be attributed to the formation of a TiC layer at lower substrate temperature during the first stage of deposition, followed with a high quality BDD layer deposited at the latter stage at higher substrate temperature. The Ti/BDD electrodes can be utilized as electrochemical sensors of measuring pollutants, or work as anodic electrode in electro-oxidation of various pollutants such as acetic acid, maleic acid, dyes, phenols, etc.

Author(s): Guohua Chen

Evaluation of Lead Concentration in Mussel Mytella charruana in the Mundau Estuarine Lagoon, Maceio, Brazil.

Natural Sciences & Environment Journal (NSEJ), Volume 2, Sep 2017
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The Estuary Lagoon Mundau-Manguaba (ELMM), in the State of Alagoas is a very productive one and is located in Maceio, Brazil. In this estuary, two lagoons (Mundau and Manguaba) and some streams are connected with the Atlantic Ocean. Due to the input of nutrients, a very rich and highly productive ecosystem was generated, being the nutritional source for the local people. Among those organisms, the bivalve mollusk Mytella charruana has a huge nutritional significance, being very easy to catch. For this reason the elevated productivity of this mollusk is essential. The estuary has suffered the impact of some human activities and the most important are related to sugar cane, culture, sugar/alcohol production allied to MVC and PVC industries and in natura sewage release local cities, including the capital of the state, Maceio. The present work aims to evaluating lead concentration in the tissues of Mytella charruana, since those organisms can be used as biomonitors of heavy metals pollution. The mollusk was first washed with Water Milli-Q, until complete elimination of incrusted sediments. After removal of the soft tissue from the shells, with plastic spoons, excess humidity was eliminated using paper filter. Digestion was performed using 2.0 (? 0.0001) g (wet wt) of mollusk tissue in 10 mL of concentrated HNO3. After filtration through 0.45 |im membrane, the solution was made up to 100 mL using citrate buffer (pH 3). Lead concentration in the digest was determined by anodic stripping voltammetry, using square wave voltammetry. The mercury film was generated on a carbon vitreous surface (BAS) from Hg(NO3)2.H2O solution, with 5 minutes of deposition. The pre-concentration of the analyte was also of 5 min. In the optimized conditions (citrate buffer, pH 3), calibration curves were built with linearity between 3.5 and 160 ppb. The mollusk digest was analysed, yielding 1.7 |ig/g of Pb. Recovery tests in the sample were performed in the determination of Pb with addition of 360 |iL and after 550 |iL of one solution of 1 mg/L of Pb. The results obtained were 94 e 76% for the first and second additions, respectively. The used methods were adequate concerning extraction and Pb determination, in the analysis of mollusk Mytella charruana. The content of Pb in he mollusk does not compromise is use as a nutritional source.

Author(s): Cristiane X. Galhardo, Selma S. da Silva, Fabiane C. de Abreu, Osvaldo Luiz C. Amaral, Marilia F. O. Goulart

Calibration and validation of the hydrodynamic model DYRESM to estimate future impacts of climate change on aquatic ecosystems

Natural Sciences & Environment Journal (NSEJ), Volume 2, Sep 2017
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Modelling the thermal structure and heat content of lakes in climate change is getting more and more important as a fundament for ecological lake models. Various studies demonstrated the strong impact of climate change on environmental systems, including the ecosystems of lakes. Anyhow there are several gaps in understanding the complex interaction of atmosphere and hydrosphere as well as in modelling their impact on aquatic ecosystems. When using a hydrodynamic lake model for ecological studies, the careful calibration and validation is an essential condition. The results of the validation process and the following statistical analysis will be presented in this contribution. Afterwards the hydrodynamic model is suitable to estimate future trends in the development of the lakes thermal characteristics, e.g. vertical thermal stratification, Schmidt stability or thermocline shift, which have a significant influence on the aquatic ecosystem. Therefor it is advisable to use data of existing regional climate models, e.g. REMO on the basis of different IPCC emission scenarios. Finally the hydrodynamic model can be coupled with an aquatic ecological model to support the future water quality management. We are working with the one-dimensional hydrodynamic model DYRESM (Centre for Water Research 2010), which is a process based model using a Lagrangian layer scheme. It was established successfully in different investigation areas around the world, in Middle Europe for example at Lake Constance. The input parameters of the model are provided by the meteorological network of the DWD and the Bavarian environmental agency. The calibration covers a period between 2001 and 2007,the validation between 2007 and 2011. As study object we selected the pre-alpine, 83 metres deep, currently dimictic Lake Ammersee, which is located 30 km south west of Munich. This lake was chosen due to the fact that in our opinion it could be representative for many other lakes in the northern foothills of the Alps considering their similar geogenic, climate geographic and limnologic character. There is no other lake in Upper Bavaria where such a large calibration and validation of a hydrodynamic model was achieved. To quantify the current model error when comparing the modelled data with the measured data during model calibration and validation at Lake Ammersee, we calculated the root mean square errors (RMSE), mean absolute errors (MAE) and coefficients of determination in different depths. This statistical analysis we will also present in this contribution.

Author(s): Stefan Weinberger, Mark Vetter

Hierarchical Clustering of Population Pyramids Presented as Histogram Symbolic Data

Mathematics and Computer Sciences Journal (MCSJ), Volume 2, Sep 2017
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Population pyramid is a very popular presentation of the age-sex distribution of the human population of a particular region. Its shape is influenced not only by demographical indicators, but also by many other social and political characteristics, such as birth control policy, wars, life-style etc. In the paper Clustering of population pyramids (Korenjak-C erne, Kejzar, Batagelj, Informatica, 2008) clusters of world countries with similar pyramidal shapes were obtained using Wards hierarchical clustering. The corresponding clusters shapes can offer additional insight about countries to field-related researchers. In order to get clusters where the gender and size of population are also taken into account we present data as histogram symbolic data (Billard, Diday, 2006). For their analysis we adapt the generalized Wards hierarchical clustering procedure (Batagelj, 1988). The changes of the pyramids shapes, and also changes of the countries inside main clusters will be examined for the years 1996, 2001, and 2006.

Author(s): Natasa Kejzar, Simona Korenjak-Cerne, Vladimir Batagelj

Statistical Modulation of a Human Health Problem in Albania

Mathematics and Computer Sciences Journal (MCSJ), Volume 2, Sep 2017
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The air pollution from the industry activity is very dangerous for the human health. This paper aims to analyze the data collected in three sites: two polluted and the ones not, positioned in the south of Albania. Using ANOVA we analyze the influence of the site in the hematological and pneumological field. We build a multivariable regress model for the pneumology using smoke, time stay and the age as independent variables in this model. The covariance method used on the model shows that avoiding the smoke variable there is no difference between three sites in the pneumological field. The dependence of the smoke from the time stay is shown using the multi ANOVA method.

Author(s): Luela Prifti, Etleva Beliu, Shpetim Shehu

Applications of Wavelet-Based Functional Mixed Models to Proteomics and Genomics Data

Mathematics and Computer Sciences Journal (MCSJ), Volume 2, Sep 2017
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Various genomic and proteomic assays yield high dimensional, irregular functional data. For ex- ample, MALDI-MS yields proteomics data consisting of one-dimensional spectra with many peaks, 2D gel electrophoresis and LC-MS yield two-dimensional images with spots that correspond to peptides present in the sample, and array CGH or SNP chip arrays yield one-dimensional functions of copy number information along the genome. In this talk, I will discuss how to identify candidate biomarkers for various types of proteomic and genomic data using Bayesian wavelet-based functional mixed models. This approach models the functions in their entirety, so avoid reliance on peak or spot detection methods. The ?exibility of this framework in modeling nonparametric fixed and random effect functions enables it to model the effects of multiple factors simultaneously, allowing one to perform inference on multiple factors of interest using the same model fit, while adjusting for clinical for experimental covariates that may affect both the intensitiesand locations of the peaks and spots in the data. I will demonstrate how to identify regions of the functions that are differentially expressed across experimental conditions, in a way that takes both statistical and clinical significance into account and controls the Bayesian false discovery rate to a pre-specified level. Time allowing, I will also demonstrate how to use this framework as the basis for classifying future samples based on their proteomic smf genomic profiles in a way that can also combine information across multiple sources of data, including proteomic, genomic, and clinical. These methods will be applied to a series of proteomic and genomic data sets from cancer-related studies.

Author(s): Jeffrey S. Morris

Climate challenges and agriculture

Life and Agriculture Sciences Journal (LASJ), Volume 2, Sep 2017
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The Government presented in July 2009 a White Paper on climate challenges and agriculture (Report No. 39 (2008-2009)) to the Storting. The Governments proposal enlarges on and supplements the White Paper on Norways ambitious climate policy (see Report No. 34 (2006?2007) to the Storting) in relation to agriculture. Sustainable and climate-friendly production of sufficient food and energy for the worlds population is a major challenge. All sectors, agriculture included, are expected to contribute to emission mitigation measures and other measures to ensure positive contribution to reduction of the worlds emission of greenhouse gases. In the new White Paper the Government consider emission and uptake of greenhouse gases in the agriculture sector in Norway, and the adaption and instruments necessary for robust, climate-adapted agriculture in the future.

Author(s): Jon Olav Brunvatne

Nutrition consultation in zoo animals using ration calculation

Life and Agriculture Sciences Journal (LASJ), Volume 2, Sep 2017
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Abstract
In our nutrition consultation service, computer aided ration calculation is employed to check feed rations for pet animals as well as livestock in order to diagnose possible nutritional impact on certain health problems and to optimize rations. For some species specialised software is available and employed. Otherwise, if specialised software is lacking, mostly table calculation programs such as MS Excel are used to compare energy and nutrient intake with the recommended intake. The same approach is used when rations of exotic and zoo animals are scrutinised. Based on data sets from common databases of feedstuffs and information from literature, nutrient composition of feedstuffs is adjusted to species specific values whenever possible, for example data for the apparent digestibility of dry matter and / or proximates in that species are used to estimate the energy content of the diet. The nutrient supply of the actually fed ration is compared with the requirement. If necessary, the composition and/or the amount of used feedstuffs are changed in order to fit better to the species specific and individual needs as well as the preconditions of the zoo (availability of the feedstuffs). Even though requirement figures are limited in various species and approximation is often necessary, formulating recommendations that way often proves effective, especially in case of frequent monitoring and adaptation of the diet if required. To exemplify, the approach will be displayed at The paper using a case of weight loss necessity in rhinos and a check-up of mineral supply in elephants.

Author(s): B. Dobenecker, F. Wendel, C. Gohl, N. Kowaleski, A. Knieriem

Managing zoo diet information; what do we need from the next generation software?

Life and Agriculture Sciences Journal (LASJ), Volume 2, Sep 2017
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Abstract
There is a gap within the current suite of animal records software provided by International Species Information System (ISIS); the facility to record diet notes is currently available within the Animal Records Keeping System (ARKS) but as a free text box, it can completed with varying attention to detail. Bespoke software designed for the zoo community could i) ensure diet information is stored in a rigorous, standardised format, ii) be linked with animal stock numbers, allowing comparison with food purchasing/accounts, iii) be used for diet formulation, permitting the exchange of true diet data ? the nutrients that are being offered and consumed in specific quantities, not just a list of the food ingredients involved, iv) allow easy collation of diets used for many species at a single collection thereby fulfilling criteria for legal purposes or professional accreditation. Furthermore, diet information for a single species held in many collections could be easily collated, providing a useful research tool for producing zoo husbandry guidelines; it could also be a valuable educational tool. All of this information is essential for advancing our understanding and improvement of captive animal husbandry. Pragmatic reasons for using a customised diet management programme include legislative drivers (e.g. zoo licence and or accreditation requirements to keep diet records), plus economic incentives (e.g. the facility to check the quantity of food that should be fed matches what is being ordered). A number of programmes currently in use offer some of the functionality described, but no single one can do all of the above. Also, with no investment or management evident, all of these programmes are becoming technically obsolete and incompatible with modern technology. this paper will make a case for why we should work together to design and build the next generation software.

Author(s): Andrea L. Fidgett